Anopheles culicifacies (AculA1)

Anopheles culicifacies Assembly and Gene Annotation

The Anopheles culicifacies A data and its display on Ensembl Genomes are made possible through a joint effort by the Ensembl Genomes group and VectorBase, a component of VEuPathDB.

About Anopheles culicifacies A


Anopheles culicifacies is a complex of five species found in Cambodia, China, Ethiopia, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam, India, Iran and Pakistan, and An, culicifacies A is a malaria vector found in these last three countries.

The Culicifacies Complex includes five species informally named species A, B, C, D and E. The bionomics and ecology of the species within this complex have been largely studied in India and Sri Lanka, and there is a general lack of detailed information from other regions, especially the western areas of its range.


The species of the Culicifacies Complex occur in different habitats, ranging from forested areas with perennial streams to deforested riverine ecosystems and irrigated areas. Larval habitats include irrigated canals, stream margins, seepages, borrow pits, hoof marks, rock pools, sandy pools near rice fields, rock quarries, newly dug pits, ponds, domestic wells, tanks and gutters. Immature stages develop in fresh-water habitats but tolerance to moderate salinity has been reported in Oman where larvae have been collected in concrete reservoir tanks containing brackish water. Similarly, species E is able to tolerate variable salinity caused by monsoonal rain in Sri Lanka. It exploits a wide range of aquatic habitats in Sri Lanka, reflecting the significant environmental adaptability of this malaria vector. An. culicifacies C has been observed to greatly outnumber species B in forested areas of Orissa, India whereas species C was found to be most common in deforested areas. In India, species A has been shown to be more abundant in villages with domestic wells, whereas species B was found in higher densities in villages with streams. Species of the Culicifacies Complex are abundant in plains, hilly and mountainous areas up to elevations of 1500m to 2000m in Afghanistan (Kabul region) and the Indian Himalayas.

Resting and feeding preference

Adult biting activity can occur during the first half of the night in cooler months (November-March) and during the second and third quarters of the evening in the warmer months (September-October), although peak biting activity has also been reported as occurring around 23:00 to midnight. Post-feeding behaviour of the species showed a higher tendency for resting indoors, mainly in cattle sheds, but outdoor resting has also been reported. As members of the Culicifacies Complex exhibit distinctly different behaviour, a more thorough study of the bionomics of each species must be undertaken to specifically and efficiently target control efforts against those species involved in malaria transmission.

Vectorial capacity

Four species of the complex (A, C, D, E) are reportedly malaria vectors in India where it is estimated they are responsible for transmitting 60-65% of all cases of malaria in peri-urban and urban environments. Anopheles culicifacies E, due to its high anthropophilic and endophilic behaviour, is the most important and efficient vector of Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax in southern India and Sri Lanka. Species A, C and D appear to be mainly zoophilic. Therefore, these three species generally play very minor roles in malaria transmission although species C was found to be responsible for local malaria transmission in deforested riverine areas of central India. Due to its highly zoophilic behaviour, species B is considered to be a poor or non-vector.

This text was modified from Sinka ME et al. (2011) The dominant Anopheles vectors of human malaria in Asia-Pacific region: occurrence data, distribution maps and bionomic précis Parasites & Vectors 4:89.

A-37 strain

Originally isolated from wild individuals collected in Iran (Ghoran village, May 2010), mosquitoes were donated by Mohammad Oshagi and Igor Sharakhov (Virginia Tech). There is no colony.

Source: VectorBase

AculA1 assembly

This assembly was generated using 101 bp paired-end Illumina HiSeq2000 reads generated from two libraries: a 180 bp insert 'fragment' library and a 1.5 kb 'jump' library. Sequencing template for the fragment and jump libraries was derived from genomic DNA extracted from a single individual, which was preserved by freezing at -80C. Native genomic DNA was used for the fragment library and whole genome amplified DNA was used for the jump library. Reads were assembled at the Broad Institute using the ALLPATHS LG algorithm, with the Haploidify option enabled to address high allelic heterozygosity in the template

AculA1.6 gene set

Community annotation patch build for October 2018


  1. The dominant Anopheles vectors of human malaria in the Asia-Pacific region: occurrence data, distribution maps and bionomic prcis.
    Sinka ME, Bangs MJ, Manguin S, Chareonviriyaphap T, Patil AP, Temperley WH, Gething PW, Elyazar IR, Kabaria CW, Harbach RE et al. 2011. Parasit Vectors. 4



AssemblyAculA1, INSDC Assembly GCA_000473375.1, Nov 2013
Database version101.1
Base Pairs187,158,781
Golden Path Length202,998,806
Genebuild byVectorBase
Genebuild methodMaker genebuild
Data sourceBroad Institute

Gene counts

Coding genes14,356
Non coding genes371
Small non coding genes369
Long non coding genes2
Gene transcripts14,752


Short Variants10,054,417

About this species