Anopheles arabiensis (AaraD1)

Anopheles arabiensis Assembly and Gene Annotation

The Anopheles arabiensis data and its display on Ensembl Genomes are made possible through a joint effort by the Ensembl Genomes group and VectorBase, a component of VEuPathDB.

About Anopheles arabiensis


Anopheles arabiensis belongs to the An. gambiae species complex, and is one of the most important vectors of malaria in sub-Saharan Africa and surrounding islands.


Anopheles arabiensis is considered a species of dry, savannah environments and sparse woodland yet it is known to occur in forested areas, but only where there is a history of recent land disturbance or clearance. Its larval habitats are generally small, temporary, sunlit, clear and shallow fresh water pools, although An. arabiensis is able to utilize a variety of habitats including slow flowing, partially shaded streams and a variety of large and small natural and man-made habitats. It has been found in turbid waters and, on occasion, in brackish habitats. It readily makes use of irrigated rice fields where larval densities are related to the height of the rice, peaking when the plants are still relatively short and then dropping off substantially as the rice plants mature. Such density fluctuations are also reflected in the adult population, which also peak when rice stalks are small and decline as the plants mature. These patterns may be due to a preference for sunlit areas of water with relatively limited emergent vegetation, with densities decreasing as shade from the growing plants increases.

Resting and feeding preferences

An. arabiensis is described as a zoophilic, exophagic and exophilic species. However, it is also known to have a wide range of feeding and resting patterns, depending on geographical location. This behavioural plasticity allows An. arabiensis to adapt quickly to counter indoor residual spraying control showing behavioural avoidance of sprayed surfaces depending on the type of insecticide used. The behavioural variability of An. arabiensis is clearly evident with reports of both anthropophilic and zoophilic behaviour. An east-west behavioural cline has been suggested where populations found in western Africa display higher levels of anthropophily, and preferentially feed and rest indoors, whereas those in the east exhibit greater zoophily and rest outdoors. Overall, however, biting patterns tend to be exophagic. Blood feeding times also vary in frequency but biting generally occurs during the night. Peak evening biting times can begin in the early evening (19:00) or early morning (03:00). This species, demonstrates a predisposition to exophilic (or partial exophilic) behaviour regardless of where it has blood fed or the source of its meal, a behavioural trait considered to be depend on location.

Vectorial capacity

Anopheles arabiensis is considered to be a dominant malaria vector species.

This text was modified from Sinka ME et al. (2010) The dominant Anopheles vectors of human malaria in Africa, Europe and the Middle East: occurrence data, distribution maps and bionomic précis Parasites & Vectors 3:117.

Dongola strain

Strain used for sequencing. Originally isolated from Sudan the colony has undergone isofemale selection, and is available from the BEI resource center.

Source: VectorBase

AaraD1 assembly

This assembly was generated using 101 bp paired-end Illumina HiSeq2000 reads generated from three libraries: a 180 bp insert 'fragment' library, a 1.5 kb 'jump' library, and a 38 kb 'fosill' library. Sequencing template for the fragment and jump libraries was derived from genomic DNA extracted from a single individual, which was preserved by freezing at -80C. Native genomic DNA was used for the fragment library and whole genome amplified DNA was used for the jump library. Template for the fosill library was generated from a pooled extraction of many individuals. Reads were assembled at the Broad Institute using the ALLPATHS LG algorithm, with the Haploidify option enabled to address high allelic heterozygosity in the template.

AaraD1.12 gene set

Community annotation patch build for July 2019.


  1. The dominant Anopheles vectors of human malaria in Africa, Europe and the Middle East: occurrence data, distribution maps and bionomic prcis.
    Sinka ME, Bangs MJ, Manguin S, Coetzee M, Mbogo CM, Hemingway J, Patil AP, Temperley WH, Gething PW, Kabaria CW et al. 2010. Parasit Vectors. 3:117.

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AssemblyAaraD1, INSDC Assembly GCA_000349185.1, Apr 2013
Database version107.1
Golden Path Length246,567,867
Genebuild byVEuPathDB
Genebuild methodMaker genebuild
Data sourceBroad Institute

Gene counts

Coding genes13,271
Non coding genes378
Small non coding genes377
Long non coding genes1
Gene transcripts14,415


Short Variants11,187,091