Anopheles gambiae Assembly and Gene Annotation

VectorBase The Anopheles gambiae data and its display on Ensembl Genomes are made possible through a joint effort by the Ensembl Genomes group and VectorBase, a NIAID Bioinformatics Resource Center. The source data for this genome and other resources can be accessed via the VectorBase browser.

About Anopheles gambiae

Anopheles gambiae senso stricto is the primary mosquito vector responsible for the transmission of malaria in most of sub-Saharan Africa. It is a member of a species complex that includes at least seven morphologically indistinguishable species in the Series Pyretophorus in the Anopheles subgenus Cellia. An. gambiae feeds preferentially on humans and is one of the most efficient malaria vectors known.

Picture credit (public domain): James Gathany (CDC) 1994


The genome assembly presented here (AgamP4, April 2014) is a revised assembly based on the whole genome shotgun assembly of the PEST strain of Anopheles gambiae [1, 2], plus the addition of a mitochondrial chromosome. The assembly is described in detail in VectorBase.


Annotation of the AgamP4 assembly was carried out by VectorBase. The set of gene models presented (genebuild AgamP4.3, released October 2015) combines manual annotation, data provided by the research community, and gene prediction using the Ensembl system. Prediction utilised alignments of dipteran and other protein sets to the genome and generation of GeneWise models, alignment and gene prediction based on Anopheles ESTs, and selected ab initio predictions. More details can be found in VectorBase.

Functional Genomics

The functional genomics database for An. gambiae contains mappings to probes from the many microarray designs, more details can be found at the VectorBase microarray page.


Variation data for Anopheles gambiae was imported from NCBI dbSNP, and from other studies involving the M and S molecular forms [3, 4, 5].

Variation data is also available for the Anopheles gambiae MR4 reference colonies 4ARR, Kisumu, Akron, L3-5 and G3. These samples were sequenced by the Kwiatkowski group at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, as part of the Malaria Programme's Anopheles gambiae Genome Variation Project. These variants should be considered preliminary, pending further analysis and quality control filtering.

EST and Protein Alignments

Anopheles gambiae ESTs were mapped onto the genome using Exonerate (Example: 2L:155000-225000).

Proteins from all VectorBase species were mapped to the Anopheles gambiae genome (using blastx) (Example: 2L:39300000-39320000).


  1. The genome sequence of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae.
    Holt RA, Subramanian GM, Halpern A, Sutton GG, Charlab R, Nusskern DR, Wincker P, Clark AG, Ribeiro JM, Wides R et al. 2002. Science. 298:129-149.
  2. Update of the Anopheles gambiae PEST genome assembly.
    Sharakhova MV, Hammond MP, Lobo NF, Krzywinski J, Unger MF, Hillenmeyer ME, Bruggner RV, Birney E, Collins FH. 2007. Genome Biology. 8:R5.
  3. SNP genotyping defines complex gene-flow boundaries among African malaria vector mosquitoes.
    Neafsey DE, Lawniczak MK, Park DJ, Redmond SN, Coulibaly MB, Traor SF, Sagnon N, Costantini C, Johnson C, Wiegand RC et al. 2010. Science. 330:514-517.
  4. Association mapping of insecticide resistance in wild Anopheles gambiae populations: major variants identified in a low-linkage disequilbrium genome.
    Weetman D, Wilding CS, Steen K, Morgan JC, Simard F, Donnelly MJ. 2010. PLoS ONE. 5:e13140.
  5. Gene flow-dependent genomic divergence between Anopheles gambiae M and S forms.
    Weetman D, Wilding CS, Steen K, Pinto J, Donnelly MJ. 2012. Molecular Biology and Evolution. 29:279-291.



Assembly: AgamP4, INSDC Assembly GCA_000005575.1, Feb 2006
Database version: 84.4
Base Pairs: 278,268,413
Golden Path Length: 273,109,044
Data source: VectorBase
Genebuild version: AgamP4.3
Genebuild method: Full genebuild

Gene counts

Coding genes

Genes and/or transcript that contains an open reading frame (ORF).

Non coding genes: 767
    Small non coding genes

Small non coding genes are usually fewer than 200 bases long. They may be transcribed but are not translated. In Ensembl, genes with the following biotypes are classed as small non coding genes: miRNA, miscRNA, rRNA, scRNA, snlRNA, snoRNA, snRNA, and also the pseudogenic form of these biotypes. The majority of the small non coding genes in Ensembl are annotated automatically by our ncRNA pipeline. Please note that tRNAs are annotated separately using tRNAscan. tRNAs are included as 'simple fetaures', not genes, because they are not annotated using aligned sequence evidence.

    Misc non coding genes: 10

A pseudogene shares an evolutionary history with a functional protein-coding gene but it has been mutated through evolution to contain frameshift and/or stop codon(s) that disrupt the open reading frame.

Gene transcriptsNucleotide sequence resulting from the transcription of the genomic DNA to mRNA. One gene can have different transcripts or splice variants resulting from the alternative splicing of different exons in genes.: 15,657

Feature counts

Snap Gene Prediction: 24,679
Structural Variants: 8
Short Variants: 9,088,941

Coordinate Systems

8 sequences
SequenceLength (bp)
scaffold 8987 sequences
chunk 13670 sequences